Documentation Images:
Tipografiia of Ivan Fedorov (and Petr Mstsislavets) – 4 Locations

Ivan Fedorov, who is considered the father of Slavonic typography in Russia, developed a distinctive poluustav typeface which was used by the Russian Church right up until the transition to Synodal Era typography. It is notable because it acchieved a harmonious balance in design between the appearance of hand-lettered forms (written with a pen) and a uniformity of clean lines of movable type. The slight curvature of strokes and the lack of absolutely perpendicular lines make this typeface stand out as "well crafted". In Ivan Fedorov's editions, the "narrow on" also had diacritical marks, but later typographers standardized the orthographic rules by using the "narrow on" only in circumstances without diacritical marks and titla. Word spacing was also lacking at times, copying the manuscript tradition.

I. Moscow

Apostol – Moscow, 1564

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020.png – Note the long- and short-legged versions of the letter "dobro".

021.png – Note the use of the Maltese Cross.

030.png – The lower case initial "o" was the same as the standard round form in most of Fedorov's editions.

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Chasovnik – Moscow, 1565

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II. Zabludov

Evangelie Uchitelnoe – Zabludov, 1569

(Images not available.)

Psaltyr – Zabludov, 1570 [original source]

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Also note the unusual use of the Maltese Cross as a separation device on three pages of this edition:

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III. Lvov (Lviv)

Azbuka – Lvov (Lviv), 1574 [PDF]

image001.png – Note the inclusion of both the "narrow on" and the "round on".

image113.png – Note the long- and short-legged versions of the letter "dobro", plus a number of earlier orthographic conventions.

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Apostol – Lvov (Lviv), 1574

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IV. Ostrog

Azbuka – Ostrog, 1578 [PDF (original source)]

fedge037.png – Note the inclusion of both the "narrow on" and the "round on".

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Biblia – Ostrog, 1581 (not a source for standard Poluustav typography)