Font Families: A Style Guide for Unicode Slavonic Fonts: PART I

Intro remarks

Add pronunciation notes: G, E, yus, sht, etc.

The complete range of characters used in Slavonic fonts can be subdivided into the following 12 categories:

STYLE GUIDE: PART I

STYLE GUIDE: PART II

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Church Slavonic characters
Representations
Name, Canonical decomposition & Comments Codes Ustav Incunabula Poluustav Synodal Skoropis Modern
(Default)

1a) Base Characters – Upper and Lower Case Letters

CYRILLIC LETTER A (Note that the official Unicode names are given here. These do not accurately reflect what the characters are called in Church Slavonic.) 0410
0430
Аа Аа Аа Аа Аа Аа
CYRILLIC LETTER BE 0411
0431
Бб Бб Бб Бб Бб Бб
CYRILLIC LETTER VE 0412
0432
Вв Вв Вв Вв Вв Вв
CYRILLIC LETTER GHE 0413
0433
Гг Гг Гг Гг Гг Гг
CYRILLIC LETTER DE: In the Poluustav fonts, unlike all the other eras, the default lower case “DE/Dobro” has a long-legged shape, which is used in the vast majority of occurences. However, in a minority of cases (typically less than 25 percent of the cases), a truncated or “short-legged” variant form is used. [The short-legged version should be used when there is the possibility of the “legs” colliding with characters in the following line of text (ascenders, diacritical marks and titla).] — We propose that for Poluustav fonts ONLY, the default “long-legged” form should be used in the position U+0434, and the “short-legged” form should be located at <ALT1> as an historical variant. The short-legged form is the default form in all other eras. 0414
0434
Дд Дд Дд Дд Дд Дд

CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT DE: DE plus palatalization, Ustav era only. There are eight characters (consonants) which can be palatalized in the Ustav era of Church Slavonic (see Palatalization in Church Slavonic Texts of the Ustav Era).

A662
A663
Ꙣꙣ
CYRILLIC LETTER IE 0415
0435
Ее Ее Ее Ее Ее Ее
CYRILLIC LETTER UKRAINIAN IE: This character is used as the WIDE E in Slavonic typography. The capital form of this letter does not exist beyond the Ustav era. Except for Ustav fonts, the Unicode codepoint U+0404 should duplicate U+0415. [In modern languages, it is used in Ukrainian, based on the Old Cyrillic YEST. It is considered a separate letter, placed after Е.] 0404
0454
Єє Єє [Є]є [Є]є Єє Єє
CYRILLIC LETTER ZHE 0416
0436
Жж Жж Жж Жж Жж Жй
CYRILLIC LETTER DZE: Common to all eras of Slavonic, but in modern times is only used in Macedonian and Montenegrin, where it is placed between З and И. 0405
0455
Ѕѕ Ѕѕ Ѕѕ Ѕѕ Ѕѕ Ѕѕ
CYRILLIC LETTER REVERSED DZE: The characters REVERSED DZE, REVERSED TSE and REVERSED YU (Ustav era variants) should not have been included in the Unicode standard, since they are discretionary alternate historical forms (mere calligraphic variations). However, in the earlier days of Unicode, before the Unicode Consortium became extremely conservative in the inclusion of new characters, these variations were unfortunately accepted for inclusion. A644
A645
Ꙅꙅ
CYRILLIC LETTER DZELO: This is a scribal or regional variant of the letter DZE, used in the Ustav era only. (It is rather unfortunate that it was encoded as a separate character, for it is a “discretionary or historical alternative” for DZE.) The Unicode naming is somewhat unfortunate. A642
A643
Ꙃꙃ

CYRILLIC LETTER ZEMLYA: The “tailed form” of the letter ZEMLYA (ZE) is the original (Ustav) form of the letter. It survived up until the Poluustav era, where it existed alongside the newer form ZE (below) and was almost completely analogous to it. However, in the wake of Patriarch Nikon's textual reforms, Muscovite Slavonic (and gradually almost all other resensions) abandoned this older form in favor of the newer form. The Unicode naming is somewhat unfortunate.

In the Poluustav tradition, both forms of the letter “zemlya” are used interchangeably and with a ratio of approximately 50:50 throughout the entire repertoire of printed books using both letter forms; however, the ratio is higher towards the tailed form in the manuscript tradition. There seem to be no absolute rules that were followed in determining which form to use, and at first encounter it seems that it was merely a matter of random choice by the scribe or typographer. However, after much observation, we can tentatively establish a few orthographic rules: 1) The “tailed form”, which is subserviant, almost never occurs in inital position. 2) It is almost never used as a numeral; the dominant form is used instead (some exceptions in the manuscript tradition). 3) It is never used in the upper case, and it seems to have no authentic capital form or usage. (After an exhaustive exercise of culling through early printed books, we have not found a single example; however, a slightly enlarged form is included in the Poluustav fonts to maintain consistency.) In the later Kievan editions, the alternate “tailed form” (including a capital letter) is used far more frequently than the dominant form, while the corresponding Muscovite editions used only the “round form” – an interesting polarization of orthography. In the Synodal editions, this variant is not authentically used.

A640
A641
Ꙁꙁ Ꙁꙁ Ꙁꙁ [Ꙁꙁ] Ꙁꙁ
CYRILLIC LETTER ZE: In the Poluustav era this character emerged as an almost completely analogous variant of the letter ZEMLYA (above), where they coexisted in the Poluustav script. However, in the wake of Patriarch Nikon's textual reforms, Muscovite Slavonic (and gradually almost all other resensions) abandoned the older form (above) in favor of this newer form. 0417
0437
Зз Зз Зз Зз Зз Зз
CYRILLIC LETTER I 0418
0438
Ии Ии Ии Ии Ии Ии
CYRILLIC LETTER SHORT I {0418/0438 0306}: There is no documentation of this letter in the Ustav tradition. In all later traditions, this is decomposable as Cyrillic Letter I (0418/0438) and Combining Breve (0306); conformant fonts should implement it as such. 0419
0439
Йй Йй Йй Йй Йй Йй

CYRILLIC LETTER BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I

NIKITA: In Slavonic typefaces the lower case form should have no dot; there are no documented uses of this character with a single dot. The “DOTLESS I” should be used only when writing numerals in Church Slavonic. [In modern languages it is used in Belarusian, Kazakh, Khakas, Komi, Rusyn, and Ukrainian. It replaces И in those alphabets. Known as "Dotted I" or "Decimal I" («и десятеричное»). (There is an occasional usage of this character in the Poluustav manuscript tradition in place of the letter “И” when attempting to squeeze a word into a tight space.)

ALEKSANDR & YURI: Though the Unicode naming makes this somewhat confusing, the Roadmap proposes to use this character as the base form of the letter ї. Thus, this character should be dotless. As a standalone, it is used only in numerals to denote the number 10. It also serves as the base for the placement of diacritical marks over the ї. Thus, Small I with Acute Accent і́should be implemented as 0456 + 0301, not as 0457 + 0301. (If a dotted form is necessary, it should be implemented as 0456 + 0307 􀆌.)

0406
0456
Іі Іі Іі Іі Іі Іі

CYRILLIC LETTER YI {0406/0456 0308}: Used in Church Slavonic, Rusyn, and Ukrainian. Considered a separate letter, placed after І. (There is an occasional usage of this character in the Poluustav manuscript tradition as an ornamentation at the ends of paragraphs that taper to a point.)

ALEKSANDR & YURI: The letter Small I with Kendema (which is the form used when no diacritical mark is placed over ї) is encoded as 0456 + 0308. In Unicode, this is equivalent to 0457. Conformant fonts should implement this character in such a way that 0456 + 0308 is equivalent to 0457. Note that 0456 only should be used as the base form.

0407
0457
Її Її Її Її Її Її
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTA: This is a modern academic invention for use with transliterating Glagolitic texts, used to represent the Glagolitic letter IOTA, which is derived from the Greek letter IOTA. A646
A647
Ꙇꙇ
CYRILLIC LETTER DJERV: The Palæoslavonic letter DJERV is only encountered in early South Slavic Ustav manuscripts. Its usage was rare; the only instances that we have ever encountered is the first letter of the transliterated Hebrew word “Gehenna”, and in a few place Hebrew names (Genesaret and Gergesenes/Gerasenes).
NOTE: This is not the same as the CYRILLIC LETTER DJE or the CYRILLIC LETTER TSHE (see below), which are completely modern letters, despite similar apppearances (although it is likely that this this character had some influence on the choice of the modern characters and their shapes).
A648
A649
Ꙉꙉ
CYRILLIC LETTER KA 041A
043A
Кк Кк Кк Кк Кк Кк
CYRILLIC LETTER EL 041B
043B
Лл Лл Лл Лл Лл Лл
CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT EL: EL plus palatalization, Ustav era only. (See Palatalization in Church Slavonic Texts of the Ustav Era.) A664
A665
Ꙥꙥ
CYRILLIC LETTER EM 041C
043C
Мм Мм Мм Мм Мм Мм
CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT EM: EM plus palatalization, Ustav era only. (See Palatalization in Church Slavonic Texts of the Ustav Era.) A666
A667
Ꙧꙧ
CYRILLIC LETTER EN 041D
043D
Нн Нн Нн Нн Нн Нн
CYRILLIC LETTER LIGATURE EN GHE (SOFT EN): This character has two usages in the history of Cyrillic scripts, which are not lingustically equivalent.
   1) The original usage is “EN plus palatalization”, which was used infrequently (or rarely) in the Ustav era only. This decomposable character has been identified by South Slavic scholars, but it has not yet been accepted into the Unicode Standard. (The Unicode name for this character is erroneous, since it is not a ligature. See also Palatalization in Church Slavonic Texts of the Ustav Era.)
   2) In modern times this glyph has been used as a LIGATURE EN GHE for the Altay, Mari and Yakut languages, and is not decomposable.
    The codepoints 04A4 and 04A5 represent the modern version of this character, and until such time (if any) that it becomes accepted by Unicode as a Slavonic character, the modern placement will have to suffice, but the typographer should be aware that this is technically inaccurate.
04A4
04A5
Ҥҥ Ҥҥ
CYRILLIC LETTER O: This is the default medial and final form of the CYRILLIC LETTER O (not used in initial position). 041E
043E
Оо Оо Оо Оо Оо Оо
CYRILLIC LETTER ROUND OMEGA: This character is erroneously named, as it is the initial form of the CYRILLIC LETTER O, derived from GREEK OMICRON (not OMEGA). The name should be corrected in future revisions of the Unicode Standard to CYRILLIC LETTER INITIAL O or CYRILLIC LETTER ROUND O. 047A
047B
Ѻѻ Ѻѻ Ѻѻ Ѻѻ Ѻѻ Ѻѻ

CYRILLIC LETTER NARROW O

NIKITA: This character has not yet been included in the Unicode Standard. Documentation and submission of this character are currently under way; there is an upper case form in the Ustav era (a stylistic variant), but only a lower case form in succeeding eras.
   In the first several decades of Slavonic printing, the NARROW O was a space-saving version of the regular round O (U+043E), which could also have diacritical marks and titla over it; orthographic rules for its usage were either lacking or inconsistent. However, by the early decades of the 17th century, most publishers had agreed upon the orthographic rule that the NARROW O was not to be used in conjunction with diacritical marks or titla, nor was it to be used by itself in initial or final position. This character is essential in reproducing pre-Nikonian literature, where it is the unaccented form of the letter “O” in medial (non-initial and non-final) positions; it sometimes accounts for over 50 per cent of the occurences of the letter O on a single page.
    It is also used as the first element in the CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER UK (U+0478/9); the standard round “O” should NOT be used in this case, even in modern Slavonic fonts. (See below.)

(For Aleksandr’s and Yuri’s comments, see PART II, section 3.)

             
     In the manuscript tradition, including the scribal tradition used in the Slavonic Bible translated by Archbishop Gennady of Novgorod in 1499, there were six “illustrative” or “pictograph” variations of the letter On. (These were undoubtedly the whimsical inventions of bored scribes who needed to have an occasional amusing moment to relieve the tedium of their task.) Some of the earliest printed editions of the Gospels and Epistles, as well as the Lenten Triodion and the life of St. Stephen of Perm, included these pictographs, but for some unexplained reason they were not retained. Their usage is specific for a single word, including its grammatical case endings. (Their inclusion in the Unicode Standard is perhaps a bit extravagant, as they could have been implemented as Variation Sequences.)
     It is doubtful that these characters appeared in the Ustav tradition, and it is questionable whether these forms appeared in Incunabula editions (pending further research). However, we do know that they are well documented throughout the earlier Poluustav manuscript and printing traditions, although they were abandoned by the later Poluustav tradition, and they did not appear at all in the Synodal and Skoropis traditions.
CYRILLIC LETTER MONOCULAR O: This “monocular” form is used only in the singular form of the word око (eye) as the initial letter; grammatical case endings are also used, but only in the singular number.
(ꙩко)
A668
A669
Ꙩꙩ Ꙩꙩ Ꙩꙩ
CYRILLIC LETTER BINOCULAR O: Like the previous character, this “binocular” form is used for the dual очеса ([twain] eyes), with grammatical case endings. (See also the following character.)
(ꙫчеса)
A66A
A66B
Ꙫꙫ Ꙫꙫ Ꙫꙫ
CYRILLIC LETTER DOUBLE MONOCULAR O: Like the previous character, this “double monocular” form is also used for the dual очеса ([twain] eyes), with grammatical case endings. (It is more common to see this letter form than the previous form.)
(ꙭчеса)
A66C
A66D
Ꙭꙭ Ꙭꙭ Ꙭꙭ
CYRILLIC LETTER MULTIOCULAR O: This “multiocular” form is used only in the adjective of the phrase многоочитїе серафїмы (many-eyed seraphim). Because of its size and usage, it has no upper case form.
(многоꙮчитїе)
A66E
CYRILLIC LETTER DOUBLE O: This “twinned” letter form appears in two different words: the initial letter of the word обо (both), and in the word двое (two), with case endings included; it also is used in the compound words for the number 12: обанадесять and двоюнадесять. It is proposed for inclusion in Unicode 6.2. See proposal.
(ꚙбо)
(A698)
(A699)
Ꚙꚙ Ꚙꚙ Ꚙꚙ
CYRILLIC LETTER CROSSED O: This “crossed” form is used only in the preposition окрест, which means “around, round-about, in the vicinity of, approximately”. It is proposed for inclusion in Unicode 6.2. See proposal.
(ꚛкрестъ)
(A69A)
(A69B)
Ꚛꚛ Ꚛꚛ Ꚛꚛ
CYRILLIC LETTER PE 041F
043F
Пп Пп Пп Пп Пп Пп

CYRILLIC LETTER KOPPA

NIKITA: The KOPPA is derived from the ancient Greek Ϙ and is the forefather of the Latin letter Q. It is found in the Ustav era only. Oddly, this character did not survive in Greek or Slavonic as a letter, but only as a number (90). Because the letter was so foreign to the Slavs, scribes in the Ustav era gradually began to replace it with a similar looking letter: the original (old style) form of the letter CHERV (CHE); the modern form of the letter CHE was subsequently used as the Ustav script evolved into the Poluustav script.

ALEKSANDR & YURI: In the earlier Ustav period this character was borrowed from Greek to indicate the numeral 90 (later replaced with the letter ч), and as such, it could never appear as a capital letter. (It has never had a linguistic use in Slavonic, and has been obsolete in the Greek language since classical times.) The upper case form of this letter is completely undocumented.

0480
0481
Ҁҁ Ҁҁ
CYRILLIC LETTER ER 0420
0440
Рр Рр Рр Рр Рр Рр
CYRILLIC LETTER ES 0421
0441
Сс Сс Сс Сс Сс Сс
CYRILLIC LETTER TE 0422
0442
Тт Тт Тт Тт Тт Тт
CYRILLIC LETTER U: In modern Slavic languages this y-shaped character is the standard letter form representing the CYRILLIC LETTER U. However, in traditional Slavonic orthography of all eras, this same vowel uses different letter forms and is called “UK” (see below); the y-shaped character was usually part of a composite letter form, which derived its orthographical rules from Greek and takes both a monograph and digraph form (see below).

   UPPER CASE: As a “solo character”, the upper case CYRILLIC U theoretically does not exist. It is, however, used occasionally in forming the COMPOSITE UK for titling (see number 3 below).

   LOWER CASE: As a “solo character”, the lower case form of CYRILLIC U was used almost exclusively for writing the number 400. [There are some rare manuscripts that use the “solo” y-form heavily instead of the letter UK (following), but this is an anomaly and may be considered improper.] The lower case y-form is also used together with the NARROW O (not yet included in the Unicode Standard) for constructing the COMPOSITE UK (see number 3 below). (Unicode recommends using the standard round O, but this is incorrect, as one can conclude after viewing a wide variety of printed sources; the use of NARROW O is technically correct in this context.)

ALEKSANDR & YURI: This is the decomposed second element of the diagraph ѹ. It is generally only used as a numeral (with a titlo above it, meaning 400), but in some early modern Russian editions it was sometimes used instead of the digraph form. (This usage can also be found in a few early Slavonic manuscripts, but it is an atypical usage.) The capital form was rarely used, and only in titling.
0423
0443
Уу Уу Уу Уу Уу Уу
CYRILLIC LETTER UK (traditionally called “IK” in the North Slavic literary tradition, probably it is derived from the Greek letter YPSILON, which has the more modern I sound, not the more ancient U sound), is a problematic character. It can have three possible forms or constructions:
1) CYRILLIC LETTER MONOGRAPH UK, which is a single character: A64A and A64B (Ꙋ and ꙋ).

The character is completely unambiguous and free of problems. It has been used in all eras of Slavonic writing and printing (although it was slightly less prevalent in the Ustav era, in favour of the digraph form). Linguistically speaking, it is derived from the Greek, albeit in an altered form; we can clearly see that the digraph Greek letters representing the vowel U (ου) were stacked vertically and combined into a single character (ꙋ). (Conveniently, this caligraphic variation was likewise used in Byzantine Greek manuscripts, which exerted considerable influence on the Slavic writing system.) This was not only more space-saving for scribes, but less confusing for readers.
A64A
A64B
Ꙋꙋ Ꙋꙋ Ꙋꙋ Ꙋꙋ Ꙋꙋ
2) CYRILLIC LETTER DIGRAPH UK (ONIK), which appears to consist of two separate characters, but is actually two characters set closely together and are not subject to canonical decomposition (like CYRILLIC YERU, Ы ы); 0478 and 0479 (Ѹ and ѹ). It is for this reason that Russian Synodal era primers called this character “ONIK”, as a combination of the letters ON and IK/UK. [Unfortunately, many font designers have actually implemented this character as the monograph form below, but this is technically incorrect.]

At the time that this character was accepted into the Unicode Standard, it was presented with a definition or description that has now been found to be incompatible with most eras of Slavonic orthography. Due to further research, Unicode has decided to deprecate (or officially stop supporting the validity of) this character; instead, it suggests using the combination of the CYRILLIC LETTER O (о)* and CYRILLIC LETTER U (у). The only reason it continues to exist in Unicode is to provide compatibility and support for texts which already contain it, but Unicode recommends that its further use be discontinued. (The Ponomar Project likewise supports the deprecation of this character, especially since it does not allow “color separation” for initial lettering in printed texts.)

* Under no circumstances, even in Synodal Era typography, should the standard round O be used to construct the DIGRAPH or COMPOSITE UK, even when designing fonts; only the use of the NARROW O is historically correct.

ALEKSANDR & YURI: This codepoint should be considered deprecated. Instead, this character should be entered as 041E + 0443 and 043E + 0443, respectively. The substitution of the typical On to the Narrow variant should be handle via contextual glyph substitution. If the substitution needs to be avoided, ZWNJ should be used. See the section below on ligatures (Roadmap, Part III, section 4).
0478
0479
Ѹѹ Ѹѹ Ѹѹ Ѹѹ Ѹѹ Ѹѹ
3) CYRILLIC LETTER COMPOSITE UK, which is made up of two separate characters: the preferred character sequences are 041E 0443 and <043E>* 0443 (Оу and оу). [*See note above.]

While this sequencing can be confusing for typesetters and possibly cause difficulties in sorting for the compilation of dictionaries, it has a number of practical advantages. It is especially conventient for use with two-color printing, where the two elements need to be printed with different colors. This would generally only happen in the upper case, in titling or “drop-cap” initials (especially where “color separation” is required in modern typography using computers). For example: ОУ or Оу.
(041E + 0443)
(<043E> + 0443)
CYRILLIC LETTER EF 0424
0444
Фф Фф Фф Фф Фф Фф
CYRILLIC LETTER HA 0425
0445
Хх Хх Хх Хх Хх Хх
CYRILLIC LETTER TSE 0426
0446
Цц Цц Цц Цц Цц Цц
CYRILLIC LETTER REVERSED TSE: The characters REVERSED DZE, REVERSED TSE and REVERSED YU (Ustav era variants) should not have been included in the Unicode standard, since they are discretionary alternate historical forms (mere calligraphic variations). However, in the earlier days of Unicode, before the Unicode Consortium became extremely conservative in the inclusion of new characters, these variations were unfortunately accepted for inclusion.

ALEKSANDR & YURI: According to Cleminson and Everson (2009), this character appears in “documents produced in Novgorod and its environs from the 11th to the 15th centuries. In the language of this area the distinction between ц and ч had been eliminated, and [the character] replaces both these characters in the documents. It cannot be considered equivalent to either of them, and therefore neither can replace it in transcription.
A660
A661
Ꙡꙡ
CYRILLIC LETTER CHE: This character has a slightly different (oldstyle) form in the Ustav era, similar to a cup on a pedestal. 0427
0447
Чч Чч Чч Чч Чч Чч
CYRILLIC LETTER SHA 0428
0448
Шш Шш Шш Шш Шш Шш
CYRILLIC LETTER SHCHA 0429
0449
Щщ Щщ Щщ Щщ Щщ Щщ
CYRILLIC LETTER HARD SIGN: In Paleoslavonic this was a semi-vowel. 042A
044A
Ъъ Ъъ Ъъ Ъъ Ъъ Ъъ
CYRILLIC LETTER YERU: This letter is improperly named in the Unicode standard as “yeru”. 042B
044B
Ыы Ыы Ыы Ыы Ыы Ыы
CYRILLIC LETTER YERU WITH BACK YER: This character was used only in the earliest Ustav tradition of Paleoslavonic. This is a variant form that is used only in the manuscript tradition. As orthographic rules became standardized in Slavonic and all of the secular Slavic languages, this combination (and all other variants with the “hard sign”) was abandoned in favour of the “soft sign” (ь + dotless і) combination. (The Unicode name is bizarre.) <SHOULD THIS HAVE CANONICAL DECOMPOSITION?> A650
A651
Ꙑꙑ
CYRILLIC LETTER SOFT SIGN: In Paleoslavonic this was a semi-vowel. 042C
044C
Ьь Ьь Ьь Ьь Ьь Ьь
CYRILLIC LETTER NEUTRAL YER: This “undifferentiated” character is used in modern editions to reproduce Paleoslavonic texts where it is completely ambiguous which letter to use: the hard or soft “yer”. It seems to be a modern invention to accomodate for not being able to clearly read faded manuscripts. A64E
A64F
Ꙏꙏ
CYRILLIC LETTER YAT: This is required for pre-1917 Russian, pre-1945 Rusyn and early Bulgarian. (Should not be used for CYRILLIC LETTER BARRED O used in Kazakh, Tuvan and Mongolian.) 0462
0463
Ѣѣ Ѣѣ Ѣѣ Ѣѣ Ѣѣ Ѣѣ
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED YAT: This “iotified yat” is an ambiguous character, and in most of the documentation it is not clear that this really is an iotified character, but merely an orthographic variation of the standard “Yat”. In the Poluustav font, this is certainly the case, as there is no evidence of an iotified version of this character existing in any of the printed books. A652
A653
Ꙓꙓ
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED E: Ustav era only. 0464
0465
Ѥѥ Ѥѥ

CYRILLIC LETTER E: In the Ustav period, this character was a rare form (a reverse variant) of the letter “Yest” which was probably a calligraphic variation, but it most certainly cannot be treated as a separate letter of the alphabet. In the Poluustav period it shows up in only one usage: it was used in musical manuscripts as a “neutral vowel sound” (in practice: just like the modern “eh”) to begin hymns and subsections of lengthy hymns (usually in conjunction with the switching of antiphonal choirs), for example, in the Photagogica and in Demestvenny polyphony. It reappears in Russian during the reforms of Peter I.

The two characters “Э” and “Я” do not exist in Church Slavonic. These codepoints should not be used to encode CYRILLIC LETTER YAT, CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED A, or any other substitute characters; they should ideally remain blank in most Slavonic fonts. On the other hand, most typographers will want to have access to stylized adaptations of both of these modern letters (for use in modern publishing and design), so font designers may wish to include them in the complete character set. We wish to point out, however, that this is an anachronism.

042D
044D
Ээ Ээ [Ээ] Ээ Ээ
CYRILLIC LETTER YU: (In the typographic tradition, the NARROW O is used in forming this letter, not the default ROUND O.) 042E
044E
Юю Юю Юю Юю Юю Юю
CYRILLIC LETTER REVERSED YU: The characters REVERSED DZE, REVERSED TSE and REVERSED YU (Ustav era variants) should not have been included in the Unicode standard, since they are discretionary alternate historical forms (mere calligraphic variations). However, in the earlier days of Unicode, before the Unicode Consortium became extremely conservative in the inclusion of new characters, these variations were unfortunately accepted for inclusion. A654
A655
Ꙕꙕ
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED A A656
A657
Ꙗꙗ Ꙗꙗ Ꙗꙗ Ꙗꙗ Ꙗꙗ
CYRILLIC LETTER YA: The two characters “Э” and “Я” do not exist in Church Slavonic. The only practical use for this modern character in Slavonic fonts is for decorative book titles, etc. 042F
044F
[Яя] [Яя] [Яя] Яя
CYRILLIC LETTER OMEGA: From the Greek letter Ω ω. 0460
0461
Ѡѡ Ѡѡ Ѡѡ Ѡѡ Ѡѡ Ѡѡ

CYRILLIC LETTER BROAD OMEGA: This glyph does not occur in Synodal texts as a standalone character, although the lower case form is used in Poluustav typography for proper names derived from Hebrew.

In Synodal typography, this character occurs only as the base in writing the exclamation, “Oh!”. (See CYRILLIC LETTER OMEGA WITH TITLO below).

A64C
A64D
Ꙍѡ Ꙍѡ Ꙍѡ Ꙍѡ Ꙍѡ

CYRILLIC LETTER OMEGA WITH TITLO {A64C/0461 0486 0487}: Sometimes call “beautiful omega”, this 3-part composite character is used as the exclamation “Oh!” Despite its current character name, this letter does not have a titlo, but is it composed of the BROAD OMEGA plus COMBINING CYRILLIC PSILI PNEUMATA and the COMBINING CYRILLIC POKRYTIE. (In all practicality, it should be decomposed into three separate characters and deprecated from the Unicode Standard.) The name of this character is erroneous and it should be renamed to CYRILLIC LETTER BROAD OH (or something like this). Moreover, the default diacritics presently composited with this character are inaccurate and earnestly need to be corrected.

ALEKSANDR & YURI: The inclusion of this character, which is not a character at all, but an ideograph for the word “Oh!”, is most unfortunate. The name of the ideograph is incorrect, since it does not contain a titlo at all, but rather a “great apostrophe”. Thus, it is decomposeable as the base form, wide omega, and the combining characters Combining Inverted Breve (0311) and Psili Pneumata (0486) – see below, in the section on Diacritical Marks. Conformant processes should implement it as such. In addition, the Unicode note “beautiful omega” should refer to A64C, not to this character.

047C
047D
[Ѽѽ] Ѽѽ Ѽѽ Ѽѽ Ѽѽ Ѽѽ
CYRILLIC LETTER OT {A64C/0461 2DEE}: Like the previous character, this digraph character should likewise be decomposited and deprecated from the Unicode Standard.

ALEKSANDR & YURI: This character is equivalent to the combination Capital (or, Small) Omega + Combining Cyrillic Letter Te (2DEE), and thus should be implemented in conformant fonts as a ligature of 0460 + 2DEE and 0461 + 2DEE, respectively.
047E
047F
Ѿѿ Ѿѿ Ѿѿ Ѿѿ Ѿѿ Ѿѿ
CYRILLIC LETTER LITTLE YUS: Used in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets; its usage in Poluustav and Synodal eras of Slavonic has been retained, but it evolved from a nasal vowel to a “ya” sound. 0466
0467
Ѧѧ Ѧѧ Ѧѧ Ѧѧ Ѧѧ Ѧѧ
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED LITTLE YUS: Used in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. This letter does not appear in Poluustav typography. It exists only in the manuscript tradition, particularlty in the South Slavic recension. 0468
0469
Ѩѩ Ѩѩ
CYRILLIC LETTER BIG YUS: This letter was used in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, and for pre-1945 Bulgarian. Although this archaic nasal vowel was used in a few of the earliest printed Poluustav books, (such as the Vilnius Gospels of 1575, which use it regularly), it was soon abandoned by the time the second editions were issued. While it is currently obsolete in Church Slavonic, it should, however, be included in all eras of fonts because this letter is used as a symbol in mathematical and calendrical charts for calculating the Paschalion cycle. 046A
046B
Ѫѫ Ѫѫ Ѫѫ Ѫѫ Ѫѫ Ѫѫ
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED BIG YUS: Used in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. This letter does not appear in Poluustav typography. It exists only in the manuscript tradition, particularlty in the South Slavic recension. 046C
046D
Ѭѭ Ѭѭ
CLOSED YUS: Used in the Ustav era. It exists only in the manuscript tradition, particularlty in the South Slavic recension. A658
A659
Ꙙꙙ
CYRILLIC LETTER IOTIFIED CLOSED YUS: Used in the Ustav era. It exists only in the manuscript tradition, particularlty in the South Slavic recension. A65C
A65D
Ꙝꙝ
CYRILLIC LETTER BLENDED YUS: Used in the Ustav era; this modern “academic” character is used when transcribing manuscripts when it cannot be determined whether the big or the small YUS is intended. A65A
A65B
Ꙛꙛ
CYRILLIC LETTER KSI: From the Greek letter Ξ ξ. 046E
046F
Ѯѯ Ѯѯ Ѯѯ Ѯѯ Ѯѯ Ѯѯ
CYRILLIC LETTER PSI: From the Greek letter Ψ ψ. 0470
0471
Ѱѱ Ѱѱ Ѱѱ Ѱѱ Ѱѱ Ѱѱ
CYRILLIC LETTER FITA: From the Greek letter Θ θ. 0472
0473
Ѳѳ Ѳѳ Ѳѳ Ѳѳ Ѳѳ Ѳѳ
CYRILLIC LETTER IZHITSA: From the Greek letter Υ υ. Required for pre-1917 Russian. For the most part, this character follows traditional Greek orthographic and pronunciation rules:
   By itself, this letter is a vowel having the sound “ee” in keep, equivalent to the vowel “И” in modern Russian. (It is present in English – and many other modern languages which have borrowed Greek words and roots – in the vowel “Y”; some European languages, however, pronounce this vowel like the German ü.) By itself, this letter does not function as a consonant. Furthermore, as a vowel, it MUST have some form of diacritical mark to either indicate stress (ACUTE ACCENT or INVERTED BREVE/KAMORA), initial position (the PSILI PNEUMATA or ACUTE OXIA, see below), or lack of stress (see the following character).
   When this letter follows another vowel, it has two possible pronunciations. When it follows the vowels A and E, it is pronounced as AV and EV. When it follows O, it combined with it to form the pure vowel U (not a diphthong, as one might expect). [It is linguistically very closely related to CYRILLIC LETTER U, У у, 0423 and 0443; see also the letter UK above.]
0474
0475
Ѵѵ Ѵѵ Ѵѵ Ѵѵ Ѵѵ Ѵѵ
CYRILLIC LETTER IZHITSA WITH DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT {0474/0475 030F}: There are a number of serious problems with this character as it was initially proposed and included in the Unicode Standard:
   1) When this character was identified and proposed for inclusion in Unicode, the two marks over the character were incorrectly identified as a DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT. (If this were an accurate identification, it would have been more accurate to call them “DOUBLE GRAVE”, not the ambiguous “DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT”, since grave and accent lean in opposite directions.) The main problem with considering this as a DOUBLE GRAVE is that the DOUBLE GRAVE has only been positively identified in manuscripts and a few early printed sources as a stress marker for nouns in the dual number, particularly the words for “two” and “both”, and for the aorist verb “бѣ”. The fact that this is only used with the letter IZHITSA when it occurs as an unstressed vowel leads us to logically conclude that it is not a stress diacritic at all, but a marker for some other function or value.
   2) While we are fortunate that the two hatch marks have not been identified as a DIERESIS (two round dots, as the South Slavic scholars choose to identify these diacritics), it is unfortunate that most Slavic scholars have not considered that these marks are the I TITLO. We can hypothesise that the reason the I TITLO is placed above the IZHITSA is to clearly indicate the pronunciation of the letter as “I”, instead of its alternate pronunciation as the consonant “V” (since this character is derived from Greek and follows similar orthographic and lingustic rules). (While this hypothesis is not entirely logical, it has a lot more credibility than the DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT.)
   3) Since both the DOUBLE GRAVE (U+030F) and the I TITLO (U+A675) are now securely encoded in the Unicode Standard, it defies the fundamental principles and logic of the Unicode Consortium to retain this composite character, and thus we suggest that this character be deprecated in favor of using separate characters (base character and diacritic).
   4) If this composite character should be retained in the Unicode Standard, its erroneous name should be corrected to read: “CYRILLIC LETTER IZHITSA WITH I TITLO”. We also encourage typographers to avoid using this compsite character entirely, in favour of using the separate elements.

ALEKSANDR & YURI: The inclusion of this character is also quite unfortunate. It is not a standalone character at all, but rather an Izhitsa with a Kendema (see section below on combining marks, ROADMAP, Part III, section 4). The codepoint should not be used but rather the character should be decomposed as 0474 + 030F (Combining Double Grave Accent). The present codepoints should be deprecated.
0476
0477
Ѷѷ Ѷѷ Ѷѷ Ѷѷ Ѷѷ Ѷѷ
CYRILLIC LETTER YN: The Romanian letter Yn is the only case of a non-Slavonic letter to be included in the standard. In the early days of printing in the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted for liturgical use (including this unique character), but later the books were transliterated into the Latin alphabet. There is no genuine need to include this character in Synodal Era fonts, as it would be anachronistic, but it should be included in Poluustav fonts. (It is pronounced as a nasal version of the letter “I”.) A65E
A65F
Ꙟꙟ [Ꙟꙟ] Ꙟꙟ Ꙟꙟ

1b) Non-Slavonic modern Cyrillic characters, included for modern font families.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Typeface designers who include the following characters in any of the traditional font familes (with the exception of Modern Default [Academic] fonts, are violating the Principle of Authentic Character Periodization, according to the Unicode Slavonic Font Manifesto. Typeface designers, however, are entitled to add these characters to special decorative fonts, which may be legitimately used for modern purposes, such as designing decorative titles for book covers, etc. The Ponomar Project, however, does not encourage this practice.
CYRILLIC LETTER IE WITH GRAVE: Used in Macedonian to represent a stressed Е. Not considered a separate letter, but merely the letter Е with a grave accent. 0400
0450
[Ѐѐ] Ѐѐ
CYRILLIC LETTER IO: Used in Russian, Belarusian, Rusyn, Mongolian, and others. Considered a separate letter, after the letter Е, but not collated separately from Е in Russian. 0401
0451
[Ёё] Ёё
CYRILLIC LETTER DJE: Used in Serbian and Montenegrin. Invented as a new letter, placed between Д and Е. (The Macedonian cognate is CYRILLIC LETTER GJE, below.)
NOTE: This is not the same as the CYRILLIC LETTER DJERV (A648, A649, see above), which was used in the Ustav era. This is a completely modern letter, despite its similar appearance (although it is quite likely that this was derived or adapted from DJERV).
0402
0452
[Ђђ] Ђђ
CYRILLIC LETTER GJE: Used in Macedonian. Considered as a new letter, placed between Д and Е. (The Serbian and Montenegrin cognate is CYRILLIC LETTER DJE, above.) 0403
0453
[Ѓѓ] Ѓѓ
CYRILLIC LETTER JE: Used in Serbian, Macedonian, Azerbaijani, Altay, and Kildin Sami. Borrowed from Latin to replace the many iotated letters in Cyrillic. Placed before К. 0408
0458
[Јј] Јј
CYRILLIC LETTER LJE: Used in Serbian and Macedonian. Ligature of Л and the Russian ь. Considered a separate letter, placed after Л. 0409
0459
[Љљ] Љљ
CYRILLIC LETTER NJE: Used in Serbian and Macedonian. Ligature of Н and the Russian ь. Considered a separate letter, placed after Н. 040A
045A
[Њњ] Њњ
CYRILLIC LETTER TSHE: Used in Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin. Invented as a new letter, placed between Т and У. In pronunciation and in linguistic value, it is somewhat equivalent to CYRILLIC LETTER CHE (Чч), which exists in the north Slavic writing systems but not in the south Slavic scripts.
NOTE: This is not the same as the CYRILLIC LETTER DJERV (A648, A649, see above), which was used in the Ustav era. This is a completely modern letter, despite its almost identical apppearance (although it is likely that this was derived or adapted from DJERV).
040B
045B
[Ћћ] Ћћ
CYRILLIC LETTER KJE: Used in Macedonian. Considered as a new letter, placed between Т and У. 040C
045C
[Ќќ] Ќќ
CYRLLIC LETTER I WITH GRAVE: Used mostly in Bulgarian and Macedonian. Not considered a separate letter, but merely the letter И with a grave accent. 040D
045D
[Ѝѝ] Ѝѝ
CYRILLIC LETTER SHORT U: Used in Belarusian, Dungan, Uzbek, and Siberian Yupik. 040E
045E
[Ўў] Ўў
CYRILLIC LETTER DZHE: This letter first occurs in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet and is now used in modern Serbian, Macedonian, and Abkhaz. In Serbian and Macedonian, it is considered a separate letter, placed between Ч and Ш. In Abkhaz, it acts like the Serbian/Macedonian Ђ, placed near the end of the Abkhaz alphabet. (It has never been used in the Russian recensions.) 040F
045F
[Џџ] Џџ
CYRILLIC LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN: Used in Belarusian, Rusyn, Ukrainian. 0490
0491
[Ґґ] Ґґ

PART II

Compiled by Nikita Simmons, 2012.